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Kidney Stones (also known as lithiasis or nephrolithiasis) is a disease that is characterized by the occurrence of a small, hard mineral deposits (called kidney stone) in the urinary tract. These materials are usually formed inside the kidney. Typically, kidney stones form when the urine is concentrated, thus, allowing the materials to crystallize and stick together.

This disease is a common problem with more than 200,000 cases reported in the United States of America each year. As we have seen recently in the media, there has been an increased incidence of Kidney Stones, mainly in the teen population. This has been attributed to several factors like:

  • High intake of animal protein, sodium (salt) and refined sugars
  • Hereditary
  • Electrolyte problems
  • An underlying metabolic condition such as gout, diabetes, distal renal tubular acidosis, Dent’s disease and hypercalciuria (high calcium in the urine).
  • Continuous usage of certain medications or supplements
  • Obesity
  • Dehydration

The most important thing about Kidney Stones you should know is that they are preventable and treatable.

Kinds of Kidney Stoneskidney stones

There are different kinds of Kidney Stones. The major ones include:

  • Calcium oxalate stones: This is the most common type of kidney stones. This stone is usually comprised of calcium and oxalate. About 90% of patients living with the Kidney Stones disease are reported to have the calcium oxalate. One unfortunate thing about the calcium oxalate stones is that they cannot be dissolved.
  • Uric acid stones: Uric acid stones usually form when the urine is too acidic. However, they can be dissolved with proper treatment.
  • Struvite stones: Struvite stones typically occurs when the urinary tract is infected with a special kind of bacteria which produces ammonia that builds up in the urine. This type of stones is usually composed of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate.

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

Typical symptoms of Kidney Stones include:

  • Flank pains that often radiate to the groin and the inner thigh
  • Restlessness
  • Abnormal urine rate
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Hematuria (presence of blood in the urine)
  • Pain on urination
  • Nausea (feeling sick) coupled with vomiting

Diagnosis and Treatment of Kidney Stones

The most important thing to do is for you to determine if you have Kidney Stones and what kind of Kidney stones you have. Answering both questions will guide your therapy.

How to Prevent Kidney Stones

  1. Drink lots of fluid: Increasing your total fluid intake to more than two liters per day of urine output will help you dilute the stone-forming substances in your urinary tract. These substances may include calcium, urate, phosphate and oxalate. According to a research paper presented at the National Kidney Foundation’s 2015 Spring Clinical Meetings in Dallas, people who produced 2.0 – 2.5 liters of urine daily were found to be 50 percent less prone to kidney stones than those who produced less. Apart from water, citrus beverages like lemonade and orange juice can be helpful.
  2. Increase your calcium intake to moderate levels: Moderate calcium intake will help you prevent the absorption of oxalate into the bloodstream by binding with the oxalate available in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus reducing the likeliness of developing kidney stones in susceptible people. To get the best results, we recommend that you go for calcium citrate supplements and between 800 – 1,000 mg of calcium per day.
  3. Limit your sodium intake: Taking excessive amounts of sodium supplements or salt can result in increased levels of calcium in your urine. This usually triggers kidney stones in people that are already susceptible. We recommend that you limit your sodium intake to 1,500 – 2,300 mg per day.
  4. Take adequate magnesium: Adequate intake of magnesium helps stimulate the production of calcitonin which takes calcium out of the blood. Magnesium also converts Vitamin D into its active form so that it can assist in calcium absorption. All these help regulate active calcium transport and prevent kidney stones. Foods like buckwheat, beans and vegetables can help you achieve the desired objective. We recommend that you take an average of 400 mg of magnesium supplements per day.
  5. Limit animal protein intake: It has been found that animal protein consumption is associated with recurrence of kidney stones especially in men. Foods like red meat, eggs, and seafood increase the level of uric acid resulting in kidney stones. It is therefore advisable for you to reduce your animal protein intake to a reasonable level.

CONCLUSION

We encourage you to visit a nephrologist if you have at one time or the other experienced any of the symptoms listed above, or you have a family history of the Kidney Stones disease. Here in FKP, we treat and attend to those suffering from the Kidney Stones disease. Most importantly, we have the expertise for proper care and to avoid the disease from recurring in the future. 


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Kidney Stone Treatment and prevention

How does diet affect the risk of developing kidney stones?

kidneysKidney stones can form when substances in the urine—such as calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus—become highly concentrated. The body uses food for energy and tissue repair. After the body uses what it needs, waste products in the bloodstream are carried to the kidneys and excreted as urine. Diet is one of several factors that can promote or inhibit kidney stone formation. Certain foods may promote stone formation in people who are susceptible, but scientists do not believe that eating any specific food causes stones to form in people who are not susceptible. Other factors that affect kidney stone formation include genes, environment, body weight, and fluid intake.

What are the types of kidney stones?

Four major types of kidney stones can form:
• Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stone and occur in two major forms: calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. Calcium oxalate stones are more common. Calcium oxalate stone formation may be caused by high calcium and high oxalate excretion. Calcium phosphate stones are caused by the combination of high urine calcium and alkaline urine, meaning the urine has a high pH.
• Uric acid stones form when the urine is persistently acidic. A diet rich in purines—substances found in animal protein such as meats, fish, and shellfish—may increase uric acid in urine. If uric acid becomes concentrated in the urine, it can settle and form a stone by itself or along with calcium.
• Struvite stones result from kidney infections. Eliminating infected stones from the urinary tract and staying infection-free can prevent more struvite stones.
• Cystine stones result from a genetic disorder that causes cystine to leak through the kidneys and into the urine, forming crystals that tend to accumulate into stones.

Dietary Changes to Help Prevent Kidney Stones

People can help prevent kidney stones by making changes in fluid intake and, depending on the type of kidney stone, changes in consumption of sodium, animal protein, calcium, and oxalate.
Drinking enough fluids each day is the best way to help prevent most types of kidney stones. Health care providers recommend that a person drink 2 to 3 liters of fluid a day. People with cystine stones may need to drink even more. Though water is best, other fluids may also help prevent kidney stones, such as citrus drinks.

How much fluid should a person drink to prevent kidney stone formation?

People who have had a kidney stone should drink enough water and other fluids to produce at least 2 liters of urine a day. People who have had cystine stones may need to drink even more. The amount of fluid each person needs to drink depends on the weather and the person’s activity level—people who work or exercise in hot weather need more fluid to replace the fluid they lose through sweat. A 24-hour urine collection may be used to determine the volume of urine produced during a day. If the volume of urine produced is too low, the person can be advised to increase fluid intake. Drinking enough fluid is the most important thing a person can do to prevent kidney stones.

How does sodium in the diet affect kidney stone formation?

Sodium, often from salt, causes the kidneys to excrete more calcium into the urine. High concentrations of calcium in the urine combine with oxalate and phosphorus to form stones. Reducing sodium intake is preferred to reducing calcium intake.
The U.S. recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of sodium is 2,300 milligrams (mg), but Americans’ intake averages 3,400 mg, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture.1 The risk of kidney stones increases with increased daily sodium consumption. People who form calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate stones should limit their intake to the U.S. RDA level, even if they take medications to prevent kidney stones.

How can a person limit sodium intake?

Learning the sodium content of foods can help people control their sodium intake. Food labels provide information about sodium and other nutrients. Keeping a sodium diary can help a person limit sodium intake to 2,300 mg. When eating out, people should ask about the sodium content of the foods they order.
Some foods have such large amounts of sodium that a single serving provides a major portion of the RDA. Foods that contain high levels of sodium include

• hot dogs
• canned soups and vegetables
• processed frozen foods
• luncheon meats
• fast food
People who are trying to limit their sodium intake should check labels for ingredients and hidden sodium, such as
• monosodium glutamate, or MSG
• sodium bicarbonate, the chemical name for baking soda
• baking powder, which contains sodium bicarbonate and other chemicals
• disodium phosphate
• sodium alginate
• sodium nitrate or nitrite

How does animal protein in the diet affect kidney stone formation?

Meats and other animal protein—such as eggs and fish—contain purines, which break down into uric acid in the urine. Foods especially rich in purines include organ meats, such as liver. People who form uric acid stones should limit their meat consumption to 6 ounces each day.
Animal protein may also raise the risk of calcium stones by increasing the excretion of calcium and reducing the excretion of citrate into the urine. Citrate prevents kidney stones, but the acid in animal protein reduces the citrate in urine.

How does calcium in the diet affect kidney stone formation?

Calcium from food does not increase the risk of calcium oxalate stones. Calcium in the digestive tract binds to oxalate from food and keeps it from entering the blood, and then the urinary tract, where it can form stones. People who form calcium oxalate stones should include 800 mg of calcium in their diet every day, not only for kidney stone prevention but also to maintain bone density. A cup of low-fat milk contains 300 mg of calcium. Other dairy products such as yogurt are also high in calcium. For people who have lactose intolerance and must avoid dairy products, orange juice fortified with calcium or dairy with reduced lactose content may be alternatives. Calcium supplements may increase the risk of calcium oxalate stones if they are not taken with food.

How does oxalate in the diet affect kidney stone formation?

Some of the oxalate in urine is made by the body. However, eating certain foods with high levels of oxalate can increase the amount of oxalate in the urine, where it combines with calcium to form calcium oxalate stones. Foods that have been shown to increase the amount of oxalate in urine include
• spinach
• rhubarb
• nuts
• wheat bran
Avoiding these foods may help reduce the amount of oxalate in the urine.

What diet plan should a person follow to prevent future kidney stones?

A dietitian can help a person plan meals that lower the risk of forming stones based on the type of stone the person formed in the past. A person with a history of kidney stones may want to talk to a dietitian who specializes in kidney stone prevention or nutrition for people with kidney problems.
A dietitian can also help overweight people plan meals to help them lose weight. Studies have shown that being overweight increases the risk of kidney stones, particularly uric acid stones. Diets that are low in carbohydrates have been shown to further increase the risk of uric acid stones and should be avoided.

Points to Remember

• Kidney stones can form when substances in the urine—such as calcium, oxalate, and phosphorus—become highly concentrated. Diet is one of several factors that can promote or inhibit kidney stone formation.
• Four major types of kidney stones can form: calcium stones, uric acid stones, struvite stones, and cystine stones.
• Drinking enough fluid is the most important thing a person can do to prevent kidney stones.
• People who have had a kidney stone should drink enough water and other fluids to make at least 2 liters of urine a day.
• Sodium, often from salt, causes the kidneys to excrete more calcium into the urine. High concentrations of calcium in the urine combine with oxalate and phosphorus to form stones. Reducing sodium intake is preferred to reducing calcium intake.
• Meats and other animal protein—such as eggs and fish—contain purines, which break down into uric acid in the urine.
• Calcium from food does not increase the risk of calcium oxalate stones. Calcium in the digestive tract binds to oxalate from food and keeps it from entering the blood, and then the urinary tract, where it can form stones.
• A dietitian can help a person plan meals that lower the risk of forming stones based on the type of stone the person formed in the past.

Kidney Stone Treatment

Clinical Trials

FKP conduct and support research into many kidney diseases and conditions.

What are clinical trials, and are they right for you?
Clinical trials are part of clinical research and at the heart of all medical advances. Clinical trials look at new ways to prevent, detect, or treat disease.

Researchers also use clinical trials to look at other aspects of care, such as improving the quality of life for people with chronic illnesses. Find out if clinical research is right for you

 

This information may contain content about medications and, when taken as prescribed, the conditions they treat. When prepared, this content included the most current information available. For updates or for questions about any medications, contact the U.S. Food and Drug Administration toll-free at 1-888-INFO-FDA (1-888-463-6332) or visit www.fda.gov External Link Disclaimer. Consult your health care provider for more information. 


19/Feb/2019

Kidney Stones (also known as lithiasis or nephrolithiasis) is a disease that is characterized by the occurrence of a small, hard mineral deposits (called kidney stone) in the urinary tract. These materials are usually formed inside the kidney. Typically, kidney stones form when the urine is concentrated, thus, allowing the materials to crystallize and stick together.

This disease is a common problem with more than 200,000 cases reported in the United States of America each year. As we have seen recently in the media, there has been an increased incidence of Kidney Stones, mainly in the teen population. This has been attributed to several factors like:

  • High intake of animal protein, sodium (salt) and refined sugars
  • Hereditary
  • Electrolyte problems
  • An underlying metabolic condition such as gout, diabetes, distal renal tubular acidosis, Dent’s disease and hypercalciuria (high calcium in the urine).
  • Continuous usage of certain medications or supplements
  • Obesity
  • Dehydration

The most important thing about Kidney Stones you should know is that they are preventable and treatable.

Kinds of Kidney Stoneskidney stones

There are different kinds of Kidney Stones. The major ones include:

  • Calcium oxalate stones: This is the most common type of kidney stones. This stone is usually comprised of calcium and oxalate. About 90% of patients living with the Kidney Stones disease are reported to have the calcium oxalate. One unfortunate thing about the calcium oxalate stones is that they cannot be dissolved.
  • Uric acid stones: Uric acid stones usually form when the urine is too acidic. However, they can be dissolved with proper treatment.
  • Struvite stones: Struvite stones typically occurs when the urinary tract is infected with a special kind of bacteria which produces ammonia that builds up in the urine. This type of stones is usually composed of magnesium, ammonium and phosphate.

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

Typical symptoms of Kidney Stones include:

  • Flank pains that often radiate to the groin and the inner thigh
  • Restlessness
  • Abnormal urine rate
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Hematuria (presence of blood in the urine)
  • Pain on urination
  • Nausea (feeling sick) coupled with vomiting

Diagnosis and Treatment of Kidney Stones

The most important thing to do is for you to determine if you have Kidney Stones and what kind of Kidney stones you have. Answering both questions will guide your therapy.

CONCLUSION

We encourage you to visit a nephrologist if you have at one time or the other experienced any of the symptoms listed above, or you have a family history of the Kidney Stones disease. Here in FKP, we treat and attend to those suffering from the Kidney Stones disease. Most importantly, we have the expertise for proper care and to avoid the disease from recurring in the future. 

Learn more about Kidney Stone Treatment .


19/Feb/2019

Kidney stones  have been on the rise in the last ten years. In 2015, over 22.1 million cases were recordedkidney stones globally, resulting in about 16,100 deaths. It is believed that between 1 and 15% of the global population are affected by kidney stones at some point in their life. In the US, one in ten people (usually between ages of 20 and 50) go to the emergency rooms each year due to kidney stones. Sadly, about half of these people will have another stone within a decade.

Having kidney stones is more painful than you can imagine. It is even worse if the stones are more than 5 millimeters in size. The effects usually leave an indelible impression on patients’ memories for years.

However, the good news is that kidney stones can be prevented. Excited? Well, it’s not as easy as you might think. Preventing kidney stone requires you to be highly disciplined. You also need to note that most of the preventive measures vary with the type of stones involved. Without much ado, here are few kidney stone prevention tips you should know:

  1. Drink lots of fluid: Increasing your total fluid intake to more than two liters per day of urine output will help you dilute the stone-forming substances in your urinary tract. These substances may include calcium, urate, phosphate and oxalate. According to a research paper presented at the National Kidney Foundation’s 2015 Spring Clinical Meetings in Dallas, people who produced 2.0 – 2.5 liters of urine daily were found to be 50 percent less prone to kidney stones than those who produced less. Apart from water, citrus beverages like lemonade and orange juice can be helpful.
  2. Increase your calcium intake to moderate levels: Moderate calcium intake will help you prevent the absorption of oxalate into the bloodstream by binding with the oxalate available in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus reducing the likeliness of developing kidney stones in susceptible people. To get the best results, we recommend that you go for calcium citrate supplements and between 800 – 1,000 mg of calcium per day.
  3. Limit your sodium intake: Taking excessive amounts of sodium supplements or salt can result in increased levels of calcium in your urine. This usually triggers kidney stones in people that are already susceptible. We recommend that you limit your sodium intake to 1,500 – 2,300 mg per day.
  4. Take adequate magnesium: Adequate intake of magnesium helps stimulate the production of calcitonin which takes calcium out of the blood. Magnesium also converts Vitamin D into its active form so that it can assist in calcium absorption. All these help regulate active calcium transport and prevent kidney stones. Foods like buckwheat, beans and vegetables can help you achieve the desired objective. We recommend that you take an average of 400 mg of magnesium supplements per day.
  5. Limit animal protein intake: It has been found that animal protein consumption is associated with recurrence of kidney stones especially in men. Foods like red meat, eggs, and seafood increase the level of uric acid resulting in kidney stones. It is therefore advisable for you to reduce your animal protein intake to a reasonable level.

Kidney Stones Treatment Tampa | Kidney Stones Treatment Fort Lauderdale


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19/Feb/2019

Women have another reason to exercise: It may help prevent kidney stones. You don’t have to break a sweat or be a super athlete, either. Even walking for a couple hours a week can cut the risk of developing this painful and common problem by about one-third, a large study found.

Women can reduce their risk for kidney stones by exercising, a new study shows.

Participants enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative reduced their risk 16% to 31%, depending on how much they exercised in the course of a week, said Mathew Sorensen, MD, from the University of Washington in Seattle.

Even moderate exercise can help, said Dr. Sorenson, who presented the findings here at the American Urological Association (AUA) 2013 Annual Scientific Meeting. “We’re not asking women to run a marathon,” he added.

Dr. Sorenson and his team reached their conclusions by analyzing data from 93,676 women aged 50 to 79 years.

For the current study, the researchers excluded 3904 women with a history of kidney stones at enrollment because these women might have altered their diets in response to this event.

They also excluded 2777 women who never answered questions about kidney stones, and they excluded 3070 who did not complete the food frequency questionnaire or who reported extremes of energy intake (<600 or >5000 kilocalories per day).

That left them with 84,225 women who had been followed for a median of 8 years. Of these, 2392 women reported a kidney stone.

“We’re not asking women to run a marathon” Dr. Mathew Sorensen

In their statistical analysis, the researchers tried to measure the importance of each risk factor for kidney stones independent of the others.

They found that women with a body mass index greater than 18.5 kg/m2 had a 1.30-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 – 1.44) to 1.81-fold (95% CI, 1.57 – 2.10) increased risk for kidney stones compared with women who had a normal BMI. The results were statistically significant (P < .001).

The relationship of BMI to kidney stones was already known, so to explore the mechanisms behind it, the researchers also compared the weekly exercise reported by the women who had kidney stones with those who did not, using as a metric the metabolic equivalent of task (MET), a measurement of the energy expended in various activities. One MET is roughly the amount of energy expended while sitting quietly.

Women who reported exercising 0.1 to 4.9 METs per week had a 16% reduced risk for kidney stones (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.84; 95% CI, 0.74 – 0.97).

This rose to 31% in women who reported 10 METs per week, and it plateaued at that level. Ten METs per week is the equivalent of 3 hours of average walking (2 – 3 mph), 4 hours of light gardening, or 1 hour of moderate jogging (6 mph).


Copyright by Florida Kidney Physicians.